100-year Anniversary of Underway Replenishment

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By Rear Adm. Dee L. Mewbourne
Commander, Military Sealift Command

May marks the 100-year anniversary of our Navy’s use of underway replenishment to refuel and resupply our combatant ships at sea.

As the organization responsible for the operation of Combat Logistics Force ships, we can take great pride in this anniversary knowing that we have contributed to this significant milestone.

Starting in 1898, the Navy began experimenting with ways to transfer coal from colliers to battleships, spending 15 years trying different methods to perfect an at-sea transfer system. A system of alongside refueling of liquid fuel dates to 1917, when then-Lieutenant Chester Nimitz jury rigged a system with ship booms supporting two hoses between the ships. Using this system, the USS Maumee (AO2) transferred fuel to 34 destroyers during a three-month period during World War I. Incredibly, these fuel transfers were done with only a 40-foot separation between the moving ships.

 The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Ross (DDG 71) receives supplies during a replenishment-at-sea with the fleet replenishment oiler USNS Big Horn (T-AO 198) April 26, 2017. Ross, forward-deployed to Rota, Spain, is conducting naval operations in the U.S. 6th Fleet area of operations in support of U.S. national security interests in Europe and Africa. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Robert S. Price/Released)
MEDITERRANEAN SEA (April 26, 2017) The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Ross (DDG 71) receives supplies during a replenishment-at-sea with the fleet replenishment oiler USNS Big Horn (T-AO 198) April 26, 2017. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Robert S. Price/Released)

The foundations for our current replenishment system date to the 1950s and 1960s with the development of a multi-product ship that could deliver fuel, ammunition and stores to an aircraft carrier task force. These ships saw the first use of a transfer system using a ram tensioner that keeps the highline between the ships tensioned, allowing for smooth transfer and accounting for the movement of the ships. This method evolved into the system we use today, the Standard Tensioned Replenishment Alongside Method (STREAM).

Our ability to successfully conduct underway replenishments gives our Navy the ability to remain on-station, forward-deployed, ready to answer the call. This is just one more example of how the work we do at Military Sealift Command, assured maritime logistics, contributes to the security of our nation.

We should not lose sight of the fact that the success of our underway replenishment systems over these 100 years emanates from accomplished seamanship and ingenious engineering solutions.  It’s really people, mariners and those who developed these systems, who enable us to celebrate this anniversary.

We recognize the hard work and personal sacrifice, and say thank you to each and every man and woman who have contributed to this legacy.

ATLANTIC OCEAN (March 23, 2017) Military Sealift Command's fast combat support ship USNS Arctic (T-AOE 8) recieves a fuel line from the fleet oiler USNS Laramie (T-AO 203) during an underway replenishment at sea, March 23. (U.S. Navy photograph by Bill Mesta/released)
ATLANTIC OCEAN (March 23, 2017) Military Sealift Command’s fast combat support ship USNS Arctic (T-AOE 8) recieves a fuel line from the fleet oiler USNS Laramie (T-AO 203) during an underway replenishment at sea, March 23. (U.S. Navy photograph by Bill Mesta/released)


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100-year Anniversary of Underway Replenishment

How’s Your U.S. Navy “Big E” Trivia?

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From Naval History and Heritage Command
Communication and Outreach Division

On Feb. 3, 2017, USS Enterprise (CVN 65), the eighth ship to bear the name, was formally decommissioned. For some it can be a sad day to see a ship retire, but for others it is a time to celebrate. We’re in the latter category. Especially since there’s so much to celebrate. Having steamed more than a million miles – that’s about 40 trips around the planet at the equator – and participated in every major operation of her age, Enterprise’s story is an amazing one! So put on your thinking caps and show us how well you know the story of the “Big E.”

Q: What was the first type of aircraft to make an arrested landing aboard Enterprise?

A: Enterprise went to sea for the first time as a commissioned ship for her shakedown cruise, on Jan. 12, 1962. During this underway period she began fleet flight operations, when Commander George C. Talley, Jr., Commander Air Group (CAG), Carrier Air Group (CVG)-1 (Tail Code AB), made an arrested landing and catapult launch in a Ling Temco Vought F-8B Crusader (BuNo 145375) from Fighter Squadron (VF) 62 on Jan. 17.

Learn more about the early days of USS Enterprise.

Commander George Talley lands his Vought F8U-1 Crusader (Bu# 145375) on board, January 17, 1962. This was the ship's first landing. Note phased array radars on island.
Commander George Talley lands his Vought F8U-1 Crusader (Bu# 145375) on board, January 17, 1962. This was the ship’s first landing. Note phased array radars on island.

Q: How many combat deployments did Enterprise make in support of the Vietnam War?

A: As 1966 began, Enterprise had been on deployment for about a month – the first nuclear powered ship to engage in combat operations. That 1966 deployment would be the first of six combat deployments to Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Some of the stories from these deployments are truly hair-raising and in many cases heroic by all measures.

Read more about the first few of Enterprise’s combat deployments.

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The nuclear-powered Attack Carrier USS ENTERPRISE (CVAN-65) steams into the wind of the South China Sea as she launches an A-4 Skyhawk jet bomber on its way to an air strike in North Vietnam, 28 May 1966.

Q: During her 51 years of active service, how many Sailors served aboard Enterprise?

A: When the ship returned to its homeport of Norfolk, Virginia, from its final deployment Nov. 4, 2012, she had deployed a total of 25 times and participated in every major conflict since the Cuban Missile Crisis and had become the home to more than 100,000 Sailors. Enterprise has been homeported in both Alameda, California, and Norfolk, and conducted operations in every region of the world.

For more information about the life of this storied ship, check out the notable ships page on the website of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

NORFOLK (Nov. 4, 2012) Port operations personnel stand ready for line handling as the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) arrives at Naval Station Norfolk. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Alice C. Hall/Released)
NORFOLK (Nov. 4, 2012) Port operations personnel stand ready for line handling as the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) arrives at Naval Station Norfolk. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Alice C. Hall/Released)

Q:   What was the first aircraft carrier to deploy with the F-14 Tomcat?

A: Of course, it’s Enterprise! On Aug. 12, 1973, Enterprise entered Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Washington. Among projects completed during her extended selected restricted availability (ESRA) were repairs and alterations to enable the ship to operate Grumman F-14A Tomcats. Equipped with AIM-54A Phoenix air-to-air missiles, Tomcats could engage targets up to 100 miles out.

Find out more about the ship’s life in the early 70s.

Aboard USS ENTERPRISE CVAN-65. The squadron marking on this aircraft is the same as the original VF-2 aircraft on the first carrier, USS LANGLEY.
Aboard USS ENTERPRISE CVAN-65. The squadron marking on this aircraft is the same as the original VF-2 aircraft on the first carrier, USS LANGLEY.

Q:  How does an aircraft carrier pull a Houdini?

A: With a little help from her friends. During the Cold War Enterprise, like many large Navy ships, was nearly always shadowed by sometimes troublesome Soviet spy ships. In February 1977, a Soviet rocket cruiser was making a nuisance of himself when Enterprise and USS Long Beach (CGN 9) teamed up to give the bear the slip for three days. The secret to their success? Complete reliance on satellite communications and maintaining a strict emissions control (EmCon) posture. 

USS Enterprise (CVN-65) Underway off Southern California, Dec. 11, 1978. Photographed by PH3 Ted Kappler. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.
USS Enterprise (CVN-65) Underway off Southern California, Dec. 11, 1978. Photographed by PH3 Ted Kappler. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

Q: On April 28, 1983, while returning home from deployment, CVN-65 ran aground. Who was the Enterprise helmsman onboard the ship that day?

A: Lt. Cmdr. Hikaru Sulu, Starfleet. Okay trick question! But it’s true: Actor George Takei, who portrayed the helmsman of the fictional starship Enterprise was aboard that day, but he was not at the helm. The accompanying photos are of a die cast model of the starship, which is one of many Star Trek related artifacts collected by the ship for which the starship is named. The model became a part of the artifact collection of the Naval History and Heritage Command in 2006. Oh, and the grounding was temporary and the ship got underway a few hours later as the tide rose. During the cruise, the ship’s air wing, CVW-11, had flown approximately 29,000 hours and recorded over 11,000 traps.

Find out more about the early 1980’s history of Enterprise.

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Q: In what decade did Enterprise become the first nuclear powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal?

A: The 1980’s. Beginning at 3 a.m. on April 29, 1986, Enterprise became the first nuclear powered carrier to transit the Suez Canal. When she exited the north end of the canal 3:14 p.m. when she entered the Med for the first time in almost 22 years.

Read more about life on Enterprise in the late 80’s.

The US Navy's nuclear powered aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) transits the Suez Canal. Enterprise, is transiting the Suez Canal and Red Sea enroute to the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Southern Watch.
The US Navy’s nuclear powered aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) transits the Suez Canal. Enterprise, is transiting the Suez Canal and Red Sea enroute to the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Southern Watch.

Q: In what year did Enterprise receive its first local area network (LAN)?

A: 1993, during which Enterprise was entering her third year in overhaul. One of the most important changes to Enterprise during that time was the installation of a Local Area Network (LAN), involving the running of thousands of feet of cable, both coaxial and fiber optic. The ship still had more than a year of overhaul to complete before leaving the shipyard on Sept. 27, 1994.

Read more about the overhaul and how the ship’s crew maintained its combat edge.

A port quarter view of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS ENTERPRISE (CVN-65) undergoing overhaul at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corporation on the James River.
A port quarter view of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS ENTERPRISE (CVN-65) undergoing overhaul at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corporation on the James River.

Q: How many pounds of ordnance did Enterprise aircraft drop on Iraq in the four days Operation Desert Fox?

A: 692,000 pounds. Operation Desert Fox was a coalition air campaign against Iraq Dec. 16-20, 1998, in response to that country’s failure to cooperate with United Nations resolutions. Enterprise launched more than 70 Navy and Marine Corps strike and strike support aircraft. Targets included weapons facilities, security sites and forces, integrated air defense and airfields, and Iraqi command and control infrastructure. Direct hits ripped apart an Iraqi military intelligence center, and four of the five barracks housing a Republican Guard H.Q. were demolished. There was no opposition from Iraqi aircraft. Enterprise launched and recovered 297 combat sorties during 70 hours of operations, with CVW-3 aircraft dropping 200 precision guided bombs, more than 30 free-fall weapons and more than 80 anti-radiation missiles.

Read more about Enterprise’s final days in the 20th century.

The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) makes its way to the southern end of its operating area the morning after the first wave of air strikes against Iraq during Desert Fox.
The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) makes its way to the southern end of its operating area the morning after the first wave of air strikes against Iraq during Desert Fox.

Q: Where was Enterprise on Sept. 11, 2001.

A: She had just left the Arabian Gulf, only two days earlier having conducted strikes against Iraq as part of Operation Southern Watch. She was headed south to Capetown for exercises with the South African Navy. Upon learning of the attacks on America, she turned around and charged north to a position 100 miles south of Pakistan. She was quickly joined by a large force of American and coalition ships and just a few weeks after the attack, she went into combat once again completing the final few weeks of her deployment before heading home. During that time, the ship flew around the clock for 18 consecutive days, dropping more than 829,150 pounds of ordnance on al Qaeda and Taliban targets. The ship completed 10,111 incident free launches and arrestments. A total of 13,624 sorties (8,182 day and 5,442 night) were flown from the deck of Enterprise in 2001, resulting in 28,262 flight hours (17,495 day and 10,767 night). By the time she returned home to a grateful nation on Nov. 10, 2001, she had steamed 90,426 nautical miles, conducting six moorings, 22 anchorages and 48 underway replenishments.

Find out more about Enterprise in a new century.

An F-14 "Tomcat" from the "Black Aces" of Fighter Squadron Four One (VF-41) roars off the flight deck of USS Enterprise (CVN 65), Sept. 12, 2001. (U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 3rd Class Clifford L. H. Davis/Released)
An F-14 “Tomcat” from the “Black Aces” of Fighter Squadron Four One (VF-41) roars off the flight deck of USS Enterprise (CVN 65), Sept. 12, 2001. (U.S. Navy photo by Photographer’s Mate 3rd Class Clifford L. H. Davis/Released)


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How’s Your U.S. Navy “Big E” Trivia?

12 examples of Air Force holiday cheer

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By Sarah Swan

National Museum of the U.S. Air Force

Staff at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force searched the archives and found some examples of holiday celebrations and greetings from Airmen through the decades. As Christmas approaches, we hope you enjoy looking through these artifacts. Please keep our military members, especially those who are away from their loved ones, in your thoughts this holiday season and throughout the year.

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12 examples of Air Force holiday cheer

TRICARE Expands Assistance to Reduce Tobacco Use

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Jonathan Barkley waves several signs to nearby drivers and joggers during the inaugural Great American Smokeout Fun Walk/Run Nov. 17. The course was a 3.36-mile trail around Nuupia Ponds, ending near Pollock Field. The signs depict the toxic chemicals inside a single cigarette and the diseases caused by long-term smoking. Photo by Christine Cabalo

Jonathan Barkley waves several signs to nearby drivers and joggers during the inaugural Great American Smokeout Fun Walk/Run Nov. 17. The course was a 3.36-mile trail around Nuupia Ponds, ending near Pollock Field. The signs depict the toxic chemicals inside a single cigarette and the diseases caused by long-term smoking. Photo by Christine Cabalo

By Army Sgt. 1st Class Tyrone C. Marshall Jr.
American Forces Press Service

The Defense Department is committed to helping troops, their families and all beneficiaries of the TRICARE health care plan reduce their reliance on tobacco products, a TRICARE official said here today.

During an interview with American Forces Press Service and the Pentagon Channel, Paul Fitzpatrick, TRICARE’s “Quit Tobacco” program manager, said TRICARE has increased tobacco cessation aid for beneficiaries.

Tobacco cessation medications and prescription medications now are available to TRICARE patients through military treatment facilities, pharmacies, and TRICARE’s mail-order pharmacy program.

“And we’re very excited to be able to offer these cessation aids to help people quit smoking [and] quit dipping,” Fitzpatrick said.

A Code of Federal Regulations final rule, effective March 29, authorizes the health care organization to implement a more comprehensive program.

“The DOD is committed to creating and maintaining a healthy fighting force,” Fitzpatrick said. “We know that soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines use tobacco at a higher rate than the American public.”

Fitzpatrick, who is a retired Army officer, noted that troops’ tobacco use is at a 5- to 10-percent higher rate than that of the public, depending on the age demographic.

“TRICARE estimates that over $500 million are devoted to tobacco-related illnesses and diseases. And those are not just the long-term illnesses like cancer and emphysema. It also includes the short-term consequences of tobacco use, which include an increased number of sick days and longer healing time for those who are smokers and dippers, he said.

“With promotion of a healthier lifestyle, we expect that more people will want to quit smoking,” Fitzpatrick said.

TRICARE now offers Zyban and Chantix, Fitzpatrick said, as well as a whole host of nicotine replacement therapies, including traditional patches, gums, lozenges, nasal spray and inhalers, which now are available through prescription at no cost to the TRICARE beneficiary.

“The development of access to pharmaceutical drugs has been in the works for a couple of years now,” Fitzpatrick said. “We are adding these medications to our host of cessation resources that TRICARE has had in place for a number of years.”

Tobacco cessation medications are available to all beneficiaries age 18 and older in the continental United States. “The prescription medications are currently not available through the mail-order pharmacy overseas, but may be available through the military treatment facility pharmacy, if they carry [them],” Fitzpatrick said.

TRICARE’s tobacco cessation aids also include a 24/7 chat service via instant messaging, toll-free telephone coaching assistance available around the clock, and face-to-face counseling with a certified tobacco cessation counselor that can arranged through a primary care provider.

“Tobacco cessation is very important to the Department of Defense, because we are looking to build and maintain a healthier fighting force,” he said. “And we know that tobacco use is a negative indicator to a healthy force. The DOD wants to be, not a follower, but a leader in reducing tobacco use in the military.”

Fitzpatrick also talked about Operation “Live Well,” DOD’s holistic approach to a healthy lifestyle and healthy living.

“It addresses not only tobacco cessation, but [also] the challenges and threats [of] obesity among our fighting force and our family members, as well as good nutrition,” he said. “Operation Live Well is a program that looks at the entire person and their healthy lifestyle.”

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